Category: Aviation

What’s Variation, Deviation?

Reference : HKU Space Material True poles are the location of the geographic poles. Rightly, the true north pole is not at same location of magnetic north pole. Variation : angular difference between true direction and magnetic direction Deviation : angular difference different between magnetic direction and compass direction Read More

Quick fact: Date, Time, Direction in aviation industry

Reference : HKU Space Material Date, Time are taking reference from coordinated universal time (UTC), also known as “Zulu” Time Date: three pair of digit – year-month-day (e.g 010131 -> 2001 Jan 31) TIme: four-figure group – HH:MM (e.g 2300Z, 2359Z, 0000Z) Direction: three way to describe direction – True direction, Magnetic direction, Compass direction; Read More

What’s Heading? What’s Track?

Reference: HKUSPACE Course Heading? Ans: Heading (HDG) refers to the direction in which the aircraft is pointing.   Track? (= Track Required, TR) Ans: Direction over the ground in which the aircraft is required to travel   Read More :- 10 *** Important: Drift is NOT the Track Error. Drift is the difference between heading Read More

What’s UTC?

Reference : HKUSPACE Course Material UTC – coordinated universal time – the time is based on the prime (or 0 degree meridian of longitude) through Greenwich near London. Read More

What’s CAVOK , What’s NCD, NSC

Reference source: https://skybrary.aero/articles/weather-observations-aerodromes CAVOK The visibility, RVR, weather and cloud groups are replaced by CAVOK (Cloud And Visibility OK) when the following conditions exist simultaneously: If there is no cloud below 5000 ft or below the highest minimum sector altitude (whichever is greater) and there is no towering cumulus or cumulonimbus, ‘NSC’ is reported. Note: Read More

一次搞懂 Minimum Safety Altitude, Decision Height and “Go-around Decision Point”

Reference : Skybrary,Boldmethod 話說今晚又飛機友聚會攞到d 靈感,今晚就學幾個生字啦~ Decision Altitude/Height (DA/DH) https://skybrary.aero/articles/decision-altitudeheight-dadh Definition The Decision Altitude (DA) or Decision Height (DH) is a specified altitude or height in the Precision Approach or approach with vertical guidance at which a Missed Approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. (ICAO Annex 6) Decision altitude (DA) is Read More

How to pronounce “ARFF” – Aircraft Rescue and FireFighting

Ans : 1:30 音係After 既 “Aft” Read More

Fun fact: Why Some Airbus A320s Have Extra Wheels

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What’s landing gear bogie?

Reference: FAA Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook-Airframe Volume 2 Chapter 13, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Undercarriage_arrangements Multiple wheels spread the weight of the aircraft over a larger area. They also provide a safety margin should one tire fail. Heavy aircraft may use four or more wheel assemblies on each main gear. When more than two wheels are attached to a Read More

Aircraft Recognition

Reference source: https://www.aircraftrecognitionguide.com/ The parts of an aircraft that can be used for recognition: Nose Landing gear Tail cone Wing Engine   B777 B777 major feature: flat, squared off tail cone Boeing 777 has six wheels per leg (main landing gear) typical flat, squared off tail cone Boeing 777-200, -200ER and 300 are not raked Read More

Service ceiling v.s Absolute altitude

Service ceiling 指飛機無再多MAP for climb; Critical altitude 指turbocharged engine 發揮最大壓縮空氣能力既高度 As a normally aspirated aircraft climbs, it eventually reaches an altitude where the MAP is insufficient for a normal climb. This altitude limit is known as the aircraft’s service ceiling Critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which a turbocharged engine can produce its rated Read More

Six pack

Reference: https://www.airpowerinc.com/six-pack-aircraft-instruments Six pack: is a terms referring the six basic instruments that a pilot must know! From the top, on the most left is the Airspeed indicator (ASI), the Attitude indicator (AI) is in the middle, and the Altimeter (Alt) on the right At the bottom, on the most left is the  Turn coordinator Read More

What’s Wing Camber, What’s Chord line?

What’s Wing Camber? Ans: curvature of the aerofoil (wing) maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chord line   Mean camber line : imaginary line equidistance between the upper and lower surface of the wing, joining from the leading edge to trailing edge.   What’s Chord line? Ans: imaginary line joining from the Read More

Learn from mistake: American Airlines Flight 965

Swiss cheese model – 爆穫吾會只係衰一樣 … The Swiss cheese model is not uncommon to be used to explain accident causation. Many layers of defense are set, it seems to be a swiss cheese. However, the inner layers of a swiss have holes. What if an imagine line can be form by connecting all holes,  the Read More

Why Second Officer usually assigned for long-haul flight?

點解SO 多數飛15個中或以上既機? First of all, what is long-haul, short haul? https://simpleflying.com/long-haul-flight-minimum-distance-guide/ https://avianet.ge/post/which-flights-are-considered-long-haul-flights Taking reference from aviation related websites, there is no consistent definition. However, I have tried to understand why CX need the SO for the so-called long hour flights – 仲要係 ‘Ultra Long Range Operations’ (ULR). The reasons is complying to CAD 371 – Read More

CAD 54 – PILOT LICENCES AND ASSOCIATED RATINGS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

https://www.cad.gov.hk/english/pdf/CAD54.pdf   CAD has three part: Part One General Part Two Private Pilot’s Licences and Instructor Ratings Part Three Professional Pilot’s Licences CAD 54 actually is the syllabubs of the cadet program~ What I am expecting myself to achieve as a candidate ? What I am expecting to learn as a cadet pilot? CAD 54 Read More

Pilot Licences

HKCAD – Hong Kong Civil Aviation Department Pilot Licences https://www.cad.gov.hk/english/ppl.html We need to prepare our self to be competent as an airline crew with various requirements at different stage, although the CX application page concludes in 6 points briefly: A Hong Kong Permanent resident Graduated from secondary school with good passes in English language, Mathematics Read More

點樣知機場QNH? 點樣知Local Pressure? How to know the QNH? How to know local pressure?

今日上完堂再唸左成個下午先好D 通左D, 所以一定要記底佢…小喇叭, 呢個Concept 好難明! Anyway, mark 低佢先! Reading (in feet)  = (Set QNH – Actual pressure level) * 30 For example, if the aerodrome is 30 feet Elevation and 當時QNH是1013, then Reading (in feet)  = (Set QNH – Actual pressure level) * 30 30 = ( 1013 – Actual pressure level )* 30 30/30 Read More

Why “Fly to low, watch below ; High to cold, watch below” ?

Ref Ace the technical pilot interview 2/E   Ans: Always remember : aneroid barometer is working based on MSL pressure (i.e pressure height) !   1.  FL formula Flight Level (Pressure Height) in feet = Height @ QNH + (1013 – QNH) * 30   Example: Now say 300 feet @ 1025 PH = 300 Read More

一次搞清楚 Q-code and Altitudes (Altimetry)

Ref Ace the technical pilot interview 2/E QFE : refer to the height (vertical distance) above ground level (with no relation to mean sea level) QNH : Altitude – refer to the height (vertical distance) above mean sea level QNE : Pressure Height = Flight level – refer to the height (vertical distance) above 1013 Read More

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