Category: Navigation

口訣勿背錯: True Direction – Magnetic Direction – Compress Direction

Magnetic Direction 東減西加 轉 Compress Magnetic Direction 東加西減 轉 True   Tommy = M+E C = M-E (我無左E就係死屍)   Read More

What’s Triangle of veolocities?

Reference : HKU Space materials Ans: it is using a vector concept to explain the relationship between HDG/TAS, TMG/GS and WV   Since the wind ‘blows’ the aircraft from its air position (expected final position) to its ground position (actual final position), it is acceptable to assume that if the air position and the ground Read More

What’s fix ? Pinpoint ?

Refer HKU SPACE materials Ans: Fix – the geographical position of an aircraft at a specific time determined by either visual reference to the ground or by navigation aids Pinpoint – fix determined by direct observation of the ground. Read More

Air Navigation

What is the 5 basic elements in air navigation? Ans:  Direction Distance Speed Wind Time   Air navigation can be basically divided into 2 part: Flight Planning and Flight Monitoring. It is talking about foresee and actual! Flight planning First of all, we need to set a route (where are we going to fly to) Read More

How can we know the variation? 

Reference: HKU Space material Ans: get the variation from chart   Isogonal(s) are the lines on map showing equal magnetic variation. Both FAA and Airservices Australia have issued “aeronautical chart user guide”. Read More

What’s Variation, Deviation?

Reference : HKU Space Material True poles are the location of the geographic poles. Rightly, the true north pole is not at same location of magnetic north pole. Variation : angular difference between true direction and magnetic direction Deviation : angular difference different between magnetic direction and compass direction Read More

Quick fact: Date, Time, Direction in aviation industry

Reference : HKU Space Material Date, Time are taking reference from coordinated universal time (UTC), also known as “Zulu” Time Date: three pair of digit – year-month-day (e.g 010131 -> 2001 Jan 31) TIme: four-figure group – HH:MM (e.g 2300Z, 2359Z, 0000Z) Direction: three way to describe direction – True direction, Magnetic direction, Compass direction; Read More

What’s Heading? What’s Track?

Reference: HKUSPACE Course Heading? Ans: Heading (HDG) refers to the direction in which the aircraft is pointing.   Track? (= Track Required, TR) Ans: Direction over the ground in which the aircraft is required to travel   Read More :- 10 *** Important: Drift is NOT the Track Error. Drift is the difference between heading Read More

What’s UTC?

Reference : HKUSPACE Course Material UTC – coordinated universal time – the time is based on the prime (or 0 degree meridian of longitude) through Greenwich near London. Read More

一次搞清楚 Q-code and Altitudes (Altimetry)

Ref Ace the technical pilot interview 2/E QFE : refer to the height (vertical distance) above ground level (with no relation to mean sea level) QNH : Altitude – refer to the height (vertical distance) above mean sea level QNE : Pressure Height = Flight level – refer to the height (vertical distance) above 1013 Read More